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73th anniversary of Emanuel Ringelblum’s arrest

By Jewish Historical Institute

7 March 2017 marks the 73th anniversary of discovering the „Krysia” bunker by the Germans. In the bunker, located in the Ochota district of Warsaw, 38 Jews had remained in hiding for several months, among them Emanuel Ringelblum, his wife Judyta and son Uri.

The bunker was located under Mieczysław Wolski’s greenhouse at 81 Grójecka street. It was probably the biggest hideaway for the Jews after the liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto. The Wolski family had been hiding Jews since 1942, and in the bunker itself – since March 1943. Ringelblum and his family found their hideaway there in Spring that year. Since then, Ringelblum would leave the bunker only alone and go to the ghetto. During one of such visits, he was arrested and transported to a camp in Trawniki. Thanks to help from the Żegota organisation, he managed to escape in August. After coming back to Warsaw, he returned to the bunker at Grójecka, where he spent the next following months.

- „The living conditions at the bunker were decent. People who stayed there had access to water, bathrooms, electricity. During his stay there, Ringelblum remained very active – he wrote an essay in Polish, ’ Polish-Jewish relations during the Second World War’, he also exchanged letters with Adolf Berman, the secretary of Żegota. The location of the bunker was very convenient; Warsaw practically ended nearby. Regular buildings reached the Narutowicz Square, beyond which stretched suburban greenhouses and farms. The rotation of hiding people was small, so they could hope for survival”, says professor Andrzej Żbikowski.

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