Social-economic changes of the 19th century led to emerging of a new elite, a class of great owners, who apart from expending capital were also interested in broadly defined arts patronage. In Warsaw, paintings were ordered and bought above all by families bearing the following names: Bersohn, Bloch, Epstein, Fajans, Flatau, Goldfeder, Goldstand, Grossman, Herman, Kronenberg, Lester, Natanson, Poznański, Rosenbaum, Rotwand, Wellisz, Wertheim and Wieniawski as well as Bronisław Krystall, Eugeniusz Lewenstern, Bernard Lauer. Representatives of great bourgeoisie, but also urban intelligentsia, mainly lawyers, doctors, architects, constituted the circle of new recipients and buyers of Polish art of the turn of the centuries. They often aspired to be engaged critics, intellectual partners in a discourse on the role and form of native art. Collecting Polish art by the collectors of Jewish descent was a phenomenon on a large scale and therefore it merits a separate analysis as an important fragment of the mutual past.
Art collecting in Warsaw at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries as an aspect of research on the intelligentsia of Jewish descent