Emanuel Ringelblum’s Diary

They are preparing to create a new formation of the Jewish police, which even already has a well-chosen name: „KOP”.

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They are preparing to create a new formation of the Jewish police, which even already has a well-chosen name: „KOP” (Border Protection Corps — the former Polish border guards). The purpose of the formation would be guarding the ghetto to prevent the entry of smuggled goods. The walls of the ghetto will be marked with large, white numbers (each 50 meters will have its number). The police officers guarding the walls will be covering separate areas and will receive a special consideration: 10 zł per day and a higher share of bread and other products. [...] There were few volunteers, so they appointed officers who will be sent to do the ugly and dangerous work (every policeman will be separately responsible for smuggling in their section). It is a diabolical plan that aims to starve the ghetto with the help of the Jews themselves. It wasn’t the first time that the occupiers forced the Jewish population to dig their own graves, and they do so constantly.


Emanuel Ringelblum, 16th June 1942, Warsaw.


E. Ringelblum, “Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto”, Warsaw, 1988; diary from JHI’s collections, the Ringelblum’s Archives; Translated from Yiddish by A. Rutkowski.

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