Emanuel Ringelblum

Remaining alive are only those who worked, directly or indirectly, for the Germans.

Wide 8 05

Remaining alive are only those who worked, directly or indirectly, for the Germans. The history has never seen such a tragedy of a nation. The nation which hates the Germans with all their senses, can escape death only by paying the price of helping the enemy [...]. As a result, the Warsaw Ghetto works intensively for the Germans.

Clothes of killed soldiers are being altered, waistcoats, jackets and padded trousers are being made for winter. They are also making straw shoes, furniture etc. The main center for all of this is the company “Toebbens” at Prosta 12, where more than 1000 workers are employed. What is characteristic for it is the fact that the director of the factory, Bauch, has on his office wall a few riding crops of various sizes and thicknesses. They are, it turns out, essential tools of every German.

Emanuel Ringelblum, 8th May 1942, Warsaw

E. Ringelblum, “The Warsaw Ghetto Chronicle”, Warsaw, 1988; a journal from JHI’s collection, Ringelblum Archives; Translated from Yiddish by A. Rutkowski.

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